The course starts with an in-cylinder pressure analysis for heat release evaluation. Modern and advanced Otto and Diesel type engines are investigated as well as the historical development of engines. Advanced gas exchange systems are discussed and special emphasis is provided on direct fuel injection since such systems have evolved dramatically the last years. New types of internal combustion engines such as HCCI and PPC are explained. Measuring techniques for the analyzing of engines as well as engine control are presented. Fuel aspects with emphasis on engine performance and emissions are presented.