In this research we investigated the generation of methanol and the utilization of CO2 using heterogeneous catalysts. Heterogeneous catalysts are frequently used in industry due to their multiple benefits, which include long-term thermal and mechanical stability, as well as reusability. Our research has demonstrated a variety of heterogeneous catalysts for sustainable methanol production and CO2 utilization, including the novel dendritic mesoporous metal oxides support. We have also designed and screened multiple active metals on the dendritic mesoporous metal oxide catalysts, modified active metal dispersion, and further reduced metal oxides to utilize silica-based catalysts, among other things. Comprehensive characterization of the final products was performed using N2 adsorption and desorption, XRD, HR-TEM, SEM, ICP-OES, XPS, H2-TPD, CO2-TPD, Raman spectroscopy, pulse-chemosorption and DRIFT, in order to determine the chemical and physical properties of the catalysts. The catalysts were found to have the following characteristics. We obtained a CO2 conversion of 25.5 % and a MeOH yield of 6.4 % after at least three cycles of usage in an avantium fixed bed reactor system with a PdCu/CZ-3 catalyst. Additionally, continuous methanol production with a higher yield (6.9 %) has been achieved using our PdZn/CZ-3 catalysts, and the best ultra-dispersed Pd nanoparticles over CZZ catalyst produces more than 12 % methanol yield with constant selectivity to methanol even after a lengthy catalytic test (more than 100 h), demonstrating their industrial viability. Additionally, our PdZn/CeTi-DMSN exhibits a high methanol production of up to 10% and better long-term stability with lower metal oxides content. The adsorption and activation of CO2 to react with the spilled over hydrogen to generate methanol has been researched for the CO2 hydrogenation and utilization reaction. Catalysts' redox, acidic, and basic characteristics all play a crucial part in this reaction and in the formation of the various products. With 2.0 percent Pd, the supported dendritic CeZrZn catalyst exhibits the highest catalytic performance (29.1% conversion and 40.6% MeOH selectivity). Comprehensive analysis revealed in this research not only identified effective catalysts with high activity for a variety of applications, but also established a link between catalytic performance and the material's nature. These discoveries may also aid the researcher in the near future in resolving global environmental problems.
|Date made available
|KAUST Research Repository