The molecular target of epigenetic signaling is chromatin. Histones are extensively post-translationally modified (PTM), and many of these individual modifications have been studied in depth. As PTMs occur at multiple positions within histones, the degree to which these modifications might influence each other remains one of the major challenges of chromatin biology. Although major discoveries in understanding the complex repertoire of histone modifications were achieved using reductionist experimental systems with synthetic histone peptides, they do not explain the role of putative PTM cross-talks in a chromatin context. However, generating chromatin substrates of defined modification status has proved to be a technically challenging task. In this thesis, I first demonstrate our work on establishing a novel approach to produce libraries of modified nucleosomes. We employed protein trans-splicing and sortase-mediated ligation strategies to incorporate chemical modifications on histone tails of ‘ligation-ready’ nucleosomes. Subsequently, the ‘designer’ nucleosome libraries were used for testing the binding of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) and elucidated the previously uncharacterized crosstalk of H3K9me2 and S28ph marks. Further investigations explained the mechanism of this crosstalk and highlighted the importance of developing chemical biology tools for elucidating complex chromatin signaling. Second, I describe our reconstitution systems for the assembly of semisynthetic recombinant chromatin carrying methylation marks on DNA and distinct modifications on histones, e.g. H3K9me3. I aimed to understand the mechanisms of the interplay between chromatin and one of the DNA maintenance methylation factors, UHRF1. I showed that UHRF1 strongly interacts with nucleosomes containing linker DNA. However, it exerts only residual enzymatic activity in this context. Based on functional H3 ubiquitylation assays in vitro, I found that hemi-methylated nucleosomes stimulate enzymatic activity of UHRF1, suggesting that the protein’s chromatin targeting and activation are a two-step process. The positioning of hemi-methylated CpG on nucleosome regulates UHRF1 target selectivity. Further, mutational analysis revealed that the PHD domain of the factor is indispensable for H3 binding and that its SRA domain is required for catalytic activation. Overall, our work adds a new layer of positional complexity to the me½CpG-dependent regulation of UHRF1 and expands the current model of DNA methylation maintenance.
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