In the present thesis we introduce the reader to the ﬁeld of spintronics and explore new phenomena, such as spin transfer torques, spin ﬁltering, and three types of spin-orbit torques, Rashba, spin Hall, and spin swapping, which have emerged very recently and are promising candidates for a new generation of memory devices in computer technology. A general overview of these phenomena is presented in Chap. 1. In Chap. 2 we study spin transfer torques in tunnel junctions in the presence of spin ﬁltering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall eﬀect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives are summarized in Chap. 5.
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