Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are rechargeable batteries analogous to lithium-ion batteries but use sodium ions (Na+) as the charge carriers. They are considered a promising alternative for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in renewable large-scale energy storage applications due to their similar electrochemical mechanisms and abundant sodium resources. Two-dimensional (2D) materials, with atomic or molecular thickness and large lateral lengths, have emerged as important functional materials due to their unique structures and excellent properties. These 2D nanosheets have been highly studied as sodium-ion battery anodes. They have large interlayer spacing, which can effectively buffer the big volume expansion and prevent electrode collapse during the charge-discharge process. Different strategies such as preparing composites, heterostructures, expanded structures, and chemical functionalization can greatly improve cycling stability and lead to high reversible capacity. In this dissertation, state-of-the-art SIB based on 2D material electrodes will be presented. In particular, Tin-based 2D materials and laser-scribed graphene anodes are discussed. Different strategies involving engineering both synthesis methods, intrinsic properties of materials, and device architecture are used to optimize the battery performance.
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