For more than 50 years, the methanol to olefins (MTO) reaction remains to be a hot topic within the catalysis community. The recent discoveries about it and the industrial implementation made it even receive more attention. The best way this process can be used is by hydrogenation of CO2 to make methanol and undergo after that the MTO reaction. This method will save energy, be more environmentally friendly, and be sustainable, but it requires advancement regarding carbon capture. The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of water on SSZ-13 commercial zeolite when it is used for MTO reaction by a combination of gas chromatography (GC) analysis and operando UV – vis spectroscopy. It was observed that water with a ratio of 2:1 methanol to water would increase the lifetime of the catalyst from 3 h to 6.5 h, and the ratio of 1:1 would increase it to 9 h. However, a higher amount of water hadn’t been analyzed, but theoretically, it would cause dealumination to the zeolite invoking a different type of deactivation. This increase in catalyst lifetime was first due to the competitive adsorption between water and methanol; leading to a lower methanol reactivity toward methoxide formation. Second, because of the competition between water and propylene, it resulted in a longer induction period and a delay in the formation of hydrocarbon pool. Hence, less coke was formed from the reaction and more species were able to diffuse into the inner pores. Also, it was observed that ethylene selectivity increased with the addition of water to the feed. The UV-vis analysis proved the longer induction period and showed the formation of more species due to that. The deactivating materials were identified to be polyaromatic carbocation and phenanthrene, while the main activating species was methylated naphthalene carbocation. In addition, multiple characterization techniques, such as nitrogen physisorption, ammonia TPD, and SEM, were performed to understand the nature of the catalyst. It was found that it has weak and strong Bronsted acid sites, BET surface area of 665.7 m2/g, and crystal size of about 0.5 – 2 µm.
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