18.4% Organic Solar Cells Using a High Ionization Energy Self-Assembled Monolayer as Hole Extraction Interlayer

Yuanbao Lin, Artiom Magomedov, Yuliar Firdaus, Dimitris Kaltsas, Abdulrahman El Labban, Hendrik Faber, Dipti R Naphade, Emre Yengel, Xiaopeng Zheng, Emre Yarali, Neha Chaturvedi, Kalaivanan Loganathan, Despoina Gkeka, Sanaa Hayel Nazil Alshammari, Osman Bakr, Frédéric Laquai, Leonidas Tsetseris, Vytautas Getautis, Thomas D. Anthopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

132 Scopus citations


Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) based on Br-2PACz and MeO-2PACz molecules are investigated as hole-extracting interlayers in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energies of these SAMs were measured at -6.01 and -5.30 eV for Br-2PACz and MeO-2PACz, respectively, and found to induce significant changes in the work function (WF) of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes upon chemical functionalization. OPV cells based on PM6:BTP-eC9:PC 71 BM using ITO/Br-2PACz anodes exhibit a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.4%, outperforming devices with ITO/MeO-2PACz (14.5%) and ITO/PEDOT:PSS (17.5%). The higher PCE is found to originate from the much higher WF of ITO/Br-2PACz (-5.81 eV) compared to ITO/MeO-2PACz (4.58 eV) and ITO/PEDOT:PSS (4.9 eV), resulting in lower interface resistance, improved hole transport/extraction, lower trap-assisted recombination, and longer carrier lifetimes. Importantly, the ITO/Br-2PACz electrode is chemically stable and after removal of the SAM it can be recycled and reused to construct fresh OPVs with equally impressive performance.
Original languageEnglish (US)
StatePublished - Apr 29 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Energy
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • General Chemical Engineering


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