3D printed electrochemical devices for bio-chemical sensing: A review

Abhinav Sharma, Hendrik Faber, Ajit Khosla, Thomas D. Anthopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Portable, affordable, and miniaturized electrochemical sensors for point-of-care diagnostic devices represent a step towards achieving the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal 3: Good Health and Well-Being. Over the last 10 years, rapid advancements in three-dimensional (3D) printing technology (additive manufacturing) have enabled the production of low-cost, miniature 3D printed (3DP) devices for bio-chemical sensing, enabling innovation in healthcare diagnostics for everyone regardless of their economic background or geographical location. Compared to traditional manufacturing processes, 3D printing offers numerous advantages for miniaturized electrochemical point-of-care diagnostic devices, such as rapid prototyping, custom-shaped devices, flexible fabrication designs, low energy consumption, reduced time to market, and reduced waste generation. This article reviews recent developments in 3DP electrochemical sensors, including the printing of composite materials, advanced electrode architectures, activation and functionalization methods, and electrochemical sensing performance (i.e. sensitivity, linear range, limits of detection) towards various analytes, including heavy metals/water pollutants, toxic/explosive substances, neurotransmitters/stimulants, metabolites, DNA, amino acids, proteins, viruses, and food pathogens. Moreover, we discuss the remaining challenges and gaps in current knowledge and solutions to improve the electroanalytic performance of 3DP electrodes for future biomedical applications in wearable and smart-implantable sensor systems of the future.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)100754
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering R: Reports
StatePublished - Sep 15 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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