A computational parametric study of ducted fuel injection implementation in a heavy-duty diesel engine

Xinlei Liu*, Hong G. Im, Charles J. Mueller, Gustav Nyrenstedt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Experiments have shown that ducted fuel injection (DFI) effectively reduces soot emissions from direct-injection diesel engines. Although many computational studies have evaluated DFI's spray development and soot reduction mechanisms in constant volume chambers, only limited computational work on internal combustion engines exists. The DFI duct assembly changes the engine's in-cylinder flow, spray, and combustion development. Therefore, current production engine designs might not be optimal for achieving the best engine performance with DFI. This work conducted an extensive numerical study to evaluate how parameter changes affect DFI performance. The parameters include swirl ratio, piston geometry, compression ratio (CR), number of injector orifices, split injection strategy, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in a heavy-duty diesel engine utilizing DFI. The combustion and soot emission data from the Sandia compression ignition optical research engine were used for model validation. Simulations showed that an increased swirl ratio resulted in more intense jet flame-piston interaction, slowing down the combustion heat release during the late combustion stage and leading to lower indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) due to higher exhaust losses. A piston-bowl design with a reentrant inner piston edge yielded the highest thermal efficiency, due to the reduced cylinder head heat transfer loss. Additional injector orifices led to higher efficiency owing to a more advanced combustion phasing. Nevertheless, the maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions also increased with the number of injector orifices due to more rapid heat release and higher combustion temperature. Implementation of a split injection strategy combined with a higher EGR rate effectively inhibited the excessive MPRR and NOx formation. In general, the study concluded that DFI is not sensitive to most parameter changes but will benefit from future parameter optimization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number130228
StatePublished - Feb 15 2024


  • Ducted fuel injection
  • Optical diesel engine
  • Piston shape
  • Swirl ratio
  • Thermal efficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Organic Chemistry


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