A low-cost interactive writing board for primary education using distinct augmented reality markers

Dawar Khan*, Inam ur Rehman, Sehat Ullah, Waheed Ahmad, Zhanglin Cheng, Gul Jabeen, Hirokazu Kato

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Educational institutions demand cost-effective and simple-to-use augmented reality systems. ARToolKit, an open-source computer tracking library for the creation of augmented reality applications that overlay virtual imagery on the real world, is such a system. It uses a simple camera and black-and-white markers printed on paper. However, due to inter-marker confusion, if the marker distinctions are not ensured, the markers are often miss-recognized. This paper presents an ARToolKit-based InteractiveWriting Board (IWB) with a simple mechanism for designing confusion-free marker libraries. The board is used for teaching single characters of Arabic/Urdu to primary level students. It uses a simple ARToolKit marker for the recognition of each character. After marker recognition, the IWB displays the corresponding image, helping students with character understanding and pronunciation. Experimental results reveal that the system improves students' motivation and learning skills.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5720
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number20
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019


  • Augmented reality
  • Computer graphics
  • Interactive white-boards
  • Primary education
  • Technology-enhanced learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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