A practical approach for synthesis of biodiesel via non-edible seeds oils using trimetallic based montmorillonite nano-catalyst

Mamoona Munir, Mushtaq Ahmad, Muhammad Mubashir, Saira Asif, Amir Waseem, Ahmad Mukhtar, Sidra Saqib, Heli Siti Halimatul Munawaroh, Man Kee Lam, Kuan Shiong Khoo, Awais Bokhari, Pau Loke Show

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65 Scopus citations

Abstract

The potential of new trimetallic (Ce, Cu, La) loaded montmorillonite clay catalyst for synthesizing biodiesel using novel non-edible Celastrus paniculatus Willd seed oil via two-step transesterification reaction has been reported along with catalyst characterization. Transesterification reaction was optimized and maximum biodiesel yield of 89.42% achieved under optimal operating reaction states like; 1:12 oil to methanol ratio, 3.5% of catalyst amount, 120 °C of reaction temperature for 3 h. The predicted and experimental biodiesel yields under these reaction conditions were 89.42 and 89.40%, which showing less than 0.05% variation. Additionally, optimum biodiesel yield can be predicted by drawing 3D surface plots and 2D contour plots using MINITAB 17 software. For the characterization of the obtained biodiesel, analysis including the GC/MS, FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR were applied. The fuel properties of obtained biodiesel agrees well with the different European Union (EU-14214), China (GB/T 20828), and American (ASTM-951, 6751) standards.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalBioresource technology
Volume328
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2021
Externally publishedYes

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