During the fracture stimulation of oil and gas wells, fracturing fluids are used to create fractures and transport the proppant into the fractured reservoirs. The fracturing fluid viscosity is responsible for proppant suspension, the viscosity can be increased through the incorporation of guar polymer and cross-linkers. After the fracturing operation, the fluid viscosity is decreased by breakers for efficient oil and gas recovery. Different types of enzyme breakers have been engineered and employed to reduce the fracturing fluid′s viscosity, but thermal stability remains the major con-straint for the use of enzymes. The latest enzyme engineering approaches such as direct evolution and rational design, have great potential to increase the enzyme breakers’ thermostability against high temperatures of reservoirs. In this review article, we have reviewed recently advanced enzyme molecular engineering technologies and how these strategies could be used to enhance the thermo-stability of enzyme breakers in the upstream oil and gas industry.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Organic Chemistry
- Molecular Biology
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry
- Computer Science Applications