A validated geomechanical model for the strike-slip restraining bend in Lebanon.

Jakub Fedorik, Francesco E Maesano, Abdulkader Musa Alafifi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Most of the methodologies used to validate complex strike-slip structures mainly rely on comparison with other well-known geological features or analogue laboratory models. This study adopts an approach based on the boundary element method at the regional scale to test the structural interpretation of a complex transpressional mountain range. Lebanon restraining bend represents the most prominent topographic transpressional feature along the Dead Sea Transform (DST). It consists of two mountain ranges: the Mount Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon ranges. We built a 3D geometrical model of the fault surfaces based on previously studied natural examples, structural maps, satellite images, DEM interpretation and experimental analogue models of restraining bend or transpressional structures. Using a boundary element method, we modelled fault deformation response to the regional stress field. The simulation accurately predicts the shape and magnitude of positive and negative topographic changes and fault slip directions throughout the study area. We propose an original approach, which uses implementation of well-known fault geometries, surface and subsurface data, for structural validation in the complex strike-slip domain. Our results, validated by structural evidences, highlight that various structural styles lead to formation of Mt. Lebanon, Anti-Lebanon and Palmyrides structures. Furthermore, this simulation supports the hypothesis that the restraining bend of the DST formed in the widespread crustal weakness zone developed in the Late Jurassic to Early Createceous. We also propose recent Neogene tectonic evolution of the region based on our modelling and integrated with published U/Pb dating of fault zones and tectonostratigraphic evidence.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 22 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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