Adduct-based p-doping of organic semiconductors

Nobuya Sakai, Ross Warren, Fengyu Zhang, Simantini Nayak, Junliang Liu, Sameer V. Kesava, Yen-Hung Lin, Himansu S. Biswal, Xin Lin, Chris Grovenor, Tadas Malinauskas, Aniruddha Basu, Thomas D. Anthopoulos, Vytautas Getautis, Antoine Kahn, Moritz Riede, Pabitra K. Nayak, Henry J. Snaith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


Electronic doping of organic semiconductors is essential for their usage in highly efficient optoelectronic devices. Although molecular and metal complex-based dopants have already enabled significant progress of devices based on organic semiconductors, there remains a need for clean, efficient and low-cost dopants if a widespread transition towards larger-area organic electronic devices is to occur. Here we report dimethyl sulfoxide adducts as p-dopants that fulfil these conditions for a range of organic semiconductors. These adduct-based dopants are compatible with both solution and vapour-phase processing. We explore the doping mechanism and use the knowledge we gain to 'decouple' the dopants from the choice of counterion. We demonstrate that asymmetric p-doping is possible using solution processing routes, and demonstrate its use in metal halide perovskite solar cells, organic thin-film transistors and organic light-emitting diodes, which showcases the versatility of this doping approach.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNature Materials
StatePublished - Apr 22 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • General Materials Science
  • General Chemistry
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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