This study reports the application of hydrated lime for the effective adsorption of the heavy mercury metal from the aqueous phase solutions. Initially, hydrated lime was subjected to structural characterization and thermal stability analysis. The FT-IR spectrum analysis revealed that the existence of the O–H bonds as a confirmation of hydrated lime formation. Subsequently, the XRD powder-based analysis demonstrated that most of the hydrated lime is pure crystalline material known as Portlandite while a small amount of calcite is also present in the structure of the hydrated lime. The thermal stability analysis revealed that the hydrated lime is highly thermally stable under harsh conditions without decomposing at higher temperatures up to 500 °C. Furthermore, the hydrated lime was subjected to the selective adsorption of heavy metal mercury to investigate the potential influence of the adsorbent particle size and loading on adsorption capacity. The results demonstrated that the decrease in the adsorbent particle size leads to the improvement in the mercury adsorption attributing to the rise in specific surface area. The enhancement in the loading of the adsorbent resulted in a reduction in mercury adsorption directing to the fact that already adsorbed metal ions onto the adsorbent surface lead to hindrance for the adsorption of other ions of heavy metal. These results lead to a significant impact on modern in inventing different adsorbents with promising water treatment efficiency for more industrial applications and the related recovery of mercury.