Aerial-Aided mmWave VANETs Using NOMA: Performance Analysis, Comparison, and Insights

Abdullah Abu Zaid, Baha Eddine Youcef Belmekki, Mohamed Slim Alouini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


In this paper, we propose the integration of tethered flying platforms in cooperative vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) to alleviate the problems of rapid urbanization. In this context, we study the performance of VANETs by deriving approximate outage probability and average achievable rate expressions using tools from stochastic geometry. We compare between the usage of networked tethered flying platforms (NTFPs) and traditional roadside units (RSUs). On the other hand, the rapid increase of smart devices in vehicles and the upcoming urban air mobility (UAM) vision will congest the spectrum and require increased data rates. Hence, we use non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) to improve spectral efficiency and compare its performance to orthogonal access schemes. Furthermore, we utilize millimeter-wave (mmWave) frequencies for high data rates and implement a sectored beamforming model. We extensively study the system using three transmission schemes: direct, relay, and hybrid transmission. The results show that when acting as relays, NTFPs outperform RSUs for larger distances between the transmitting and the receiving vehicles, while RSUs outperform NTFPs for short distances. However, NTFPs are the best solution when acting as a source. Moreover, we find that, in most cases, direct transmission is preferred to achieve a high rate compared to other schemes. Finally, the results are summarized in two tables that provide insights into connecting VANETs by selecting the most suitable platform and type of communication for a given set of parameters, configurations, and requirements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number4
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Millimeter wave communication
  • mmWave
  • NOMA
  • NTFP
  • Radio frequency
  • Relays
  • Roads
  • stochastic geometry
  • Stochastic processes
  • UAV
  • urban air mobility
  • Vehicular ad hoc networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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