An analytical approach to evaluate the impact of age demographics in a pandemic

Ismail Abdulrashid, Hamdi Friji, Kazim Topuz, Hakim Ghazzai, Dursun Delen, Yehia Mahmoud Massoud

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The time required to identify and confirm risk factors for new diseases and to design an appropriate treatment strategy is one of the most significant obstacles medical professionals face. Traditionally, this approach entails several clinical studies that may last several years, during which time strict preventative measures must be in place to contain the epidemic and limit the number of fatalities. Analytical tools may be used to direct and accelerate this process. This study introduces a six-state compartmental model to explain and assess the impact of age demographics by designing a dynamic, explainable analytics model of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. An age-stratified mathematical model taking the form of a deterministic system of ordinary differential equations divides the population into different age groups to better understand and assess the impact of age on mortality. It also provides a more accurate and effective interpretation of the disease evolution, specifically in terms of the cumulative numbers of infected cases and deaths. The proposed Kermack-Mckendrick model is incorporated into a non-linear least-squares optimization curve-fitting problem whose optimized parameters are numerically obtained using the Levenberg-Marquard algorithm. The curve-fitting model’s efficiency is proved by testing the age-stratified model’s performance on three U.S. states: Connecticut, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Our results confirm that splitting the population into different age groups leads to better fitting and forecasting results overall as compared to those achieved by the traditional method, i.e., without age groups. By using comprehensive models that account for age, gender, and ethnicity, regional public health authorities may be able to avoid future epidemics from inflicting more fatalities and establish a public health policy that reduces the burden on the elderly population.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Environmental Science
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality


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