An application of variogram modelling for electrical resistivity soundings to characterize depositional system and hydrogeology of Bannu Basin, Pakistan

Asam Farid*, Perveiz Khalid, Khan Zaib Jadoon, Muhammad Asim Iqbal, James Small

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


This study describes a method of combining geostatistical analysis with geophysical inversion of 1D electrical resistivity data acquired in the Bannu Basin, northwestern Himalayas of Pakistan. The data has been integrated and broadened from single dimension resistivity data into a 2D model that can be fully visualized and interpreted in a spatial sense. By interpreting and calibrating the electrical resistivity curves with the lithologies and geophysical logs of boreholes, it has been possible to identify unique sedimentary accumulations that occur throughout the basin. Through the use of variogram modelling the spatial extent of these accumulations can be identified and associated with measured hydraulic properties. It has become possible to map the extents and facies of the alluvial systems of the Bannu Basin formed during periods of heightened tectonic activity. The coarser sediments are associated with higher levels of resistivity as measured in the electrical surveys, whereas the finer sediments exhibit characteristically lower resistivities. Thus, the zones of high and low resistivity values become indicative of sediments associated with alluvial fans and lacustrine environments, respectively. The sediments of alluvial fans show relatively low gamma ray levels and higher transmissivities, whereas those of the piedmont deposits as well as lacustrine and sandy plains tend to show medium to high gamma ray values and lower transmissivities. Gross transmissivities were estimated by studying regression relationships between transmissivities measured in boreholes and the apparent formation factors of sediments. These relationships indicate an exponential increase in transmissivity with increasing apparent formation factor. These trends suggest a contrast in transmissivities between alluvial fan and other environments where lacustrine and sandy plains are characterized by low transmissivities. These estimated transmissivities do not represent absolute values but are merely indicative of any high or low trends in transmissivity of sediments, throughout the basin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)819-839
Number of pages21
JournalGeosciences Journal
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Bannu
  • kriging
  • porosity
  • transmissivity
  • variogram

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Environmental Science
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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