Analysis and models of pre-injection surface seismic array noise recorded at the aquistore carbon storage site

Claire Birnie*, Kit Chambers, Doug Angus, Anna L. Stork

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Noise is a persistent feature in seismic data and so poses challenges in extracting increased accuracy in seismic images and physical interpretation of the subsurface. In this paper, we analyse passive seismic data from the Aquistore carbon capture and storage pilot project permanent seismic array to characterise, classify and model seismic noise. We perform noise analysis for a three-month subset of passive seismic data from the array and provide conclusive evidence that the noise field is not white, stationary, or Gaussian; characteristics commonly yet erroneously assumed in most conventional noise models. We introduce a novel noise modelling method that provides a significantly more accurate characterisation of real seismic noise compared to conventional methods, which is quantified using the Mann-Whitney-White statistical test. This method is based on a statistical covariance modelling approach created through the modelling of individual noise signals. The identification of individual noise signals, broadly classified as stationary, pseudo-stationary and non-stationary, provides a basis on which to build an appropriate spatial and temporal noise field model. Furthermore, we have developed a workflow to incorporate realistic noise models within synthetic seismic data sets providing an opportunity to test and analyse detection and imaging algorithms under realistic noise conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1246-1260
Number of pages15
JournalGeophysical Journal International
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016


  • Probability distributions
  • Site effects
  • Statistical seismology
  • Time-series analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology


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