Analysis and Synthesis of Digital Dyadic Sequences

Abdalla G.M. Ahmed, Mikhail Skopenkov, Markus Hadwiger, Peter Wonka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We explore the space of matrix-generated (0,m, 2)-nets and (0, 2)-sequences in base 2, also known as digital dyadic nets and sequences. In computer graphics, they are arguably leading the competition for use in rendering. We provide a complete characterization of the design space and count the possible number of constructions with and without considering possible reorderings of the point set. Based on this analysis, we then show that every digital dyadic net can be reordered into a sequence, together with a corresponding algorithm. Finally, we present a novel family of self-similar digital dyadic sequences, to be named -sequences, that spans a subspace with fewer degrees of freedom. Those -sequences are extremely efficient to sample and compute, and we demonstrate their advantages over the classic Sobol (0, 2)-sequence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number218
JournalACM transactions on graphics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 4 2023


  • CCS Concepts
  • Computing methodologies
  • Rendering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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