Average probability of packet error with diversity reception over arbitrarily correlated fading channels

Fadel F. Digham*, Mohamed Slim Alouini

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Closed form expressions for the average probability of packet error (PPE) are presented for no diversity, maximum ratio combining (MRC), selection combining (SC) and switch and stay combining (SSC) diversity schemes. The average PPE for the no diversity case is obtained in two alternative expressions assuming arbitrarily correlated Nakagami and Rician fading channels. For the MRC case, L diversity branches are considered and the channel samples are assumed to follow Nakagami distribution and to be arbitrarily correlated in both time and space. For the SC diversity scheme with L diversity branches, two bounds on the average PPE are derived for both slow and fast fading channels. The average PPE in this case is obtained in an infinite integral form for Nakagami channels while it is reduced to a closed form expression for the Rayleigh case. The average PPE is also derived in the case of SSC diversity with dual branches for both slow and fast Rayleigh fading channels. The new formulas are applicable for all modulation schemes where the conditional probability of error has an exponential dependence on the signal-to-noise ratio. The average PPE is then used to obtain a modified expression for the throughput for network protocols. In general, the diversity gain exhibits a little diminishing effect as the number of diversity branches increases. In addition, the system is found to be more sensitive to the space correlation than to the time correlation. The effects of different system parameters and diversity schemes are studied and discussed. Specific figures about the system performance are also provided.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)155-173
Number of pages19
JournalWireless Communications and Mobile Computing
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Average probability of error
  • Diversity schemes
  • Fading channels
  • Mobile packet radio channels
  • Wireless networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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