BER computation of generalized QAM constellations

Pavan K. Vitthaladevuni*, Mohamed Slim Alouini

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Based on a Karnaugh map style Gray coding of constellations, we derive a recursive algorithm for the exact bit error rate computation of generalized hierarchical M-ary pulse amplitude modulations (PAM) over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and fading channels. We also show how this algorithm can be extended to generalized hierarchical quadrature amplitude modulations constellations (square and rectangular). For the AWGN case, these expressions are in the form of a weighted sum of complementary error functions and are solely dependent on the constellation size M, the carrier-to-noise ratio, and a constellation parameter which controls the relative message importance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Number of pages5
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes
EventIEEE Global Telecommunicatins Conference GLOBECOM'01 - San Antonio, TX, United States
Duration: Nov 25 2001Nov 29 2001


OtherIEEE Global Telecommunicatins Conference GLOBECOM'01
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Antonio, TX

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Global and Planetary Change


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