Blue and green ammonia production: A techno-economic and life cycle assessment perspective

Patricia Mayer, Adrian Ramirez, Giuseppe Pezzella, Benedikt Winter, S. Mani Sarathy, Jorge Gascon*, André Bardow*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Blue and green ammonia production have been proposed as low-carbon alternatives to emissions-intensive conventional ammonia production. Although much attention has been given to comparing these alternatives, it is still not clear which process has better environmental and economic performance. We present a techno-economic analysis and full life cycle assessment to compare the economics and environmental impacts of blue and green ammonia production. We address the importance of time horizon in climate change impact comparisons by employing the Technology Warming Potential, showing that methane leakage can exacerbate the climate change impacts of blue ammonia in short time horizons. We represent a constrained renewable electricity availability scenario by comparing the climate change impact mitigation efficiency per kWh of renewable electricity. Our work emphasizes the importance of maintaining low natural gas leakage for sustainability of blue ammonia, and the potential for technological advances to further reduce the environmental impacts of photovoltaics-based green ammonia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number107389
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 18 2023


  • Energy engineering
  • Energy Modeling
  • Energy policy
  • Energy resources

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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