Climatology of sea breezes along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

Basit Khan, Yasser Abualnaja, Abdullah M. Al-Subhi, Mohammedali Nellayaputhenpeedika, Manoj Nellikkattu Thody, Andrew P. Sturman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Long-term near-surface observations from five coastal stations, high-resolution model data from Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and high-resolution daily sea surface temperature (SST) from National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are used to investigate the climatology of sea breezes over the eastern side of the Red Sea region. Results show existence of separate sea breeze systems along different segments of the Red Sea coastline. Based on the physical character and synoptic influences, sea breezes in the Red Sea are broadly divided into three regions: the north and the middle Red Sea (NMRS), the Red Sea convergence zone (RSCZ) and the southern Red Sea (SRS) regions. On average, sea breezes developed on 67% of days of the 10-year study period. Although sea breezes occur almost all year, this mesoscale phenomenon is most frequent from May to October (78% of the total sea breeze days). The sea breeze frequency increases from north to south (equatorwards), and sea breeze characteristics appear to vary both temporally and spatially. In addition to land-sea thermal differential, coastline shape, latitude and topography, the prevailing northwesterly at NMRS region, the convergence of northwesterly and southeasterly wind system at RSCZ region and the northeast and southwest monsoon at SRS region play an important role in defining the sea breeze characteristics over the Red Sea.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3633-3650
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Climatology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Apr 25 2018


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