Combustion chemistry of ammonia/C1 fuels: A comprehensive kinetic modeling study

Xiaoyuan Zhang*, Kiran K. Yalamanchi, S. Mani Sarathy

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The application of ammonia (NH3) as a fuel could contribute to mitigating global warming and achieving carbon neutrality by mid-century. To enhance the reactivity of NH3 combustion, cofiring NH3 with hydrogen or C1 fuels like syngas, methanol and methane is proposed. In previous work, we studied the combustion chemistry of NH3/H2 mixtures using a comprehensive kinetic model. In this work, we expanded our comprehensive kinetic model to cover NH3/syngas, NH3/methanol and NH3/methane mixtures. Rate constants of critical cross reactions between C- and N-containing species were evaluated based on previous experimental and theoretical studies for selection and incorporation in the present model. Experimental data for both NOx/C1 and NH3/C1 fuels were selected from literature to test the present model, including speciation data measured in shock tubes, flow reactors, jet-stirred reactors, burner-stabilized flames, and the global parameters like ignition delay times and laminar flame speeds. The kinetic model validation conditions cover temperatures of 473–2000 K, pressures of 0.04–100 atm, and equivalence ratios of 0.04–116. In general, the present model adequately captures the selected experimental data. The present model can not only be used to predict the combustion of NH3/C1 fuel mixtures, but is also capable to predict the mutual interaction of NOx/C1 fuels. It is found that the rate constants between C-containing species and H2-related radicals are generally faster than (or close to) those between C- and N-containing species. At high temperatures, H2-related radicals (i.e. H, O, OH) have higher concentrations than reactive N-related radicals (NH, NH2, NO2). Therefore, under these conditions, C-containing species are more likely to react with H2-related radicals rather than N-related ones, making the C/N cross reactions less prominent. However, under low- and intermediate-temperature conditions, the concentrations of H and O radicals become lower, while those of NH2 and NO2 become higher, making the cross reactions between C- and N-containing species possible to compete with C/H cross reactions. The present model can be used as the base chemistry model for NH3/larger hydrocarbon fuels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number127676
StatePublished - Jun 1 2023


  • Ammonia
  • Kinetic model
  • Methane
  • Methanol
  • Syngas

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Organic Chemistry


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