Comparison of constructed wetland performance coupled with aeration and tubesettler for pharmaceutical compound removal from hospital wastewater

Roohul Abad Khan, Nadeem A. Khan, Rachida El Morabet, Majed Alsubih, Amadur Rahman Khan, Saimah Khan, Muhammad Mubashir, Deepanraj Balakrishnan, Kuan Shiong Khoo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Pharmaceutical compounds being able to alter, retard, and enhance metabolism has gained attention in recent time as emerging pollutant. However, hospitals which are part of every urban landscape have yet to gain attention in terms of its hospital wastewater treatment to inhibit pharmaceutical compounds from reaching environment. Hence this study evaluated performance of constructed wetland in combination with tubesettler and aeration based on removal efficiency and ecological risk assessment (HQ). The removal efficiency of constructed wetland with plantation was higher by 31% (paracetamol), 102% (ibuprofen), 46%, (carbamazepine), 57% (lorazepam), 54% (erythromycin), 31% (ciprofloxacin) and 20% (simvastatin) against constructed wetland without plantation. Constructed wetland with aeration efficiency increased for paracetamol, ibuprofen, carbamazepine, lorazepam, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and simvastatin removal efficiency were higher by 58%, 130%, 52%, 79%, 107%, 57%, and 29% respectively. In constructed wetland with plantation, removal efficiency was higher by 20% (paracetamol), 13% (ibuprofen), 4% (carbamazepine), 14% (lorazepam), 34% (erythromycin), 19% (ciprofloxacin) and 7% (simvastatin). High ecological risk was observed for algae, invertebrate and fish with hazard quotient values in range of 2.5–484, 10–631 and 1–78 respectively. This study concludes that if space is the limitation at hospitals aeration with constructed wetland can be adopted. If space is available, constructed wetland with tubesettler is suitable, economic and environmentally friendly option. Future research works can focus on evaluating other processes combination with constructed wetland.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume216
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • General Environmental Science

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