Conical focusing: mechanism for singular jetting from collapsing drop-impact craters

Yuan Si Tian, Zi Qiang Yang, Sigurður T. Thoroddsen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Fast microjets can emerge out of liquid pools from the rebounding of drop-impact craters, or when a bubble bursts at its surface. The fastest jets are the narrowest and are a source of aerosols both from the ocean and from a glass of champagne, of importance to climate and the olfactory senses. The most singular jets, which we observe experimentally at a maximum velocity of and a diameter of, under reduced ambient pressure, are produced when a small dimple forms at the crater bottom and rebounds without pinching off a small bubble. The radial collapse and rebounding of this dimple is purely inertial, but highly sensitive to initial conditions. High-resolution numerical simulations reveal a new focusing mechanism, which drives the fastest jet within a converging conical channel, where an entrained air sheet provides effective slip at the outer boundary of the conically converging flow into the jet. This configuration bypasses any viscous cutoff of the jetting speed and explains the extreme sensitivity to initial conditions observed in detailed experiments of the phenomenon.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberR1
JournalJournal of Fluid Mechanics
StatePublished - Mar 10 2023


  • drops and bubbles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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