Detailed modeling of skin penetration-An overview

Arne Naegel, Michael Heisig, Gabriel Wittum*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


In recent years, the combination of computational modeling and experiments has become a useful tool that is proving increasingly powerful for explaining biological complexity. As computational power is increasing, scientists are able to explore ever more complex models in finer detail and to explain very complex real world data. This work provides an overview of one-, two- and three-dimensional diffusion models for penetration into mammalian skin. Besides diffusive transport this includes also binding of substances to skin proteins and metabolism. These models are based on partial differential equations that describe the spatial evolution of the transport process through the biological barrier skin. Furthermore, the work focuses on analytical and numerical techniques for this type of equations such as discretization schemes or homogenization (upscaling) techniques. Finally, the work compares different geometry models with respect to the permeability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)191-207
Number of pages17
JournalAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2013


  • Brick-and-mortar
  • Cuboid
  • Drug diffusion
  • Geometry models
  • Homogenization
  • Mathematical modeling
  • Numerical simulation
  • Skin
  • Stratum corneum
  • Tetrakaidekahedra

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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