Development and evaluation of portable low cost testing system for phthalates

Asif I. Zia, S. C. Mukhopadhyay, P. L. Yu, I. H. Al-Bahadly, C. Gooneratne, Jurgen Kosel

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


A portable low-cost microcontroller based testing system was designed and constructed to detect phthalates in aqueous media. Phthalates, especially di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is the most ubiquitous endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) posing highest reproductive toxicity threat to all living species on earth. Frequency response analyser (FRA) approach was used to develop the rapid response, non-invasive electrochemical impedimetric system for detection. A smart thin film gold interdigital electrodes capacitive sensor with enhanced penetration depth was used with the proposed system for detection of the said EDC. The performance of the developed system was evaluated by comparing the results to the commercially available electrochemical Impedimetric frequency response analyzer equipment. Complex nonlinear least square (CNLS) curve fitting algorithm was used to deduce the equivalent circuit for the developed system. The DEHP detection results by the developed system were validated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) diode array detection confirming that the proposed system was able to detect the concentration of phthalates in aqueous medium.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)385-391
Number of pages7
JournalProceedings of the International Conference on Sensing Technology, ICST
StatePublished - 2014
Event8th International Conference on Sensing Technology, ICST 2014 - Liverpool, United Kingdom
Duration: Sep 2 2014Sep 4 2014


  • DEHP
  • Dielectric
  • Electrochemical
  • Endocrine disrupting compounds
  • Impedance spectroscopy
  • Interdigital
  • MEMS
  • Sensing performance
  • Sensors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Signal Processing
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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