In this paper, we propose an advanced time integration technique associated with explicit exponential Rosenbrock-based methods for the simulation of large stiff systems of nonlinear coupled oscillators. In particular, a novel reformulation of these systems is introduced and a general family of efficient exponential Rosenbrock schemes for simulating the reformulated system is derived. Moreover, we show the required regularity conditions and prove the convergence of these schemes for the system of coupled oscillators. We present an efficient implementation of this new approach and discuss several applications in scientific and visual computing. The accuracy and efficiency of our approach are demonstrated through a broad spectrum of numerical examples, including a nonlinear Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou model, elastic and nonelastic deformations as well as collision scenarios focusing on relevant aspects such as stability and energy conservation, large numerical stiffness, high fidelity, and visual accuracy.