Small-molecule semiconductors used as the channel of organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) have been rarely reported despite their inherent advantages of well-defined molecular weight, convenient scale-up synthesis, and good performance reproducibility. Herein, three small molecules based on perylene diimides are readily prepared for n-type OECTs. The final molecules show preferred energy levels, tunable backbone conformation, and high film crystallinity, rendering them good n-type dopability, favorable volumetric capacities, and substantial electron mobilities. Consequently, the OECTs afford a record-low threshold voltage of 0.05 V and a normalized peak transconductance of 4.52 × 10-2S cm-1, as well as impressive long-term cycling stability. Significantly, the OECTs utilized for hydrogen peroxide sensing are further demonstrated with a detection limit of 0.75 μM. This work opens the possibility of developing nonfullerene small molecules as superior n-type OECT materials and provides important insights for designing high-performance small-molecule mixed ion-electron conductors for OECTs and (bio)sensors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)