Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurological disease and a serious cause of dementia, which constitutes a threat to human health. The clinical evidence has found that extracellular amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ), phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and intracellular tau proteins, which are derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP), are the leading biomarkers for accurate and early diagnosis of AD due to their central role in disease pathology, their correlation with disease progression, their diagnostic value, and their implications for therapeutic interventions. Their detection and monitoring contribute significantly to understanding AD and advancing clinical care. Available diagnostic techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), are mainly used to validate AD diagnosis. However, these methods are expensive, yield results that are difficult to interpret, and have common side effects such as headaches, nausea, and vomiting. Therefore, researchers have focused on developing cost-effective, portable, and point-of-care alternative diagnostic devices to detect specific biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and other biofluids. In this review, we summarized the recent progress in developing electrochemical immunosensors for detecting AD biomarkers (Aβ and p-tau protein) and their subtypes (AβO, Aβ(1-40), Aβ(1-42), t-tau, cleaved-tau (c-tau), p-tau181, p-tau231, p-tau381, and p-tau441). We also evaluated the key characteristics and electrochemical performance of developed immunosensing platforms, including signal interfaces, nanomaterials or other signal amplifiers, biofunctionalization methods, and even primary electrochemical sensing performances (i.e., sensitivity, linear detection range, the limit of detection (LOD), and clinical application).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry