End-to-end performance of transmission systems with relays over Rayleigh-fading channels

Mazen O. Hasna*, Mohamed Slim Alouini

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1219 Scopus citations


End-to-end performance of two-hops wireless communication systems with nonregenerative relays over flat Rayleigh-fading channels is presented. This is accomplished by deriving and applying some new closed-form expressions for the statistics of the harmonic mean of two independent exponential variates. It is shown that the presented results can either be exact or tight lower bounds on the performance of these systems depending on the choice of the relay gain. More specifically, average bit-error rate expressions for binary differential phase-shift keying, as well as outage probability formulas for noise limited systems are derived. Finally, comparisons between regenerative and nonregenerative systems are presented. Numerical results show that the former systems clearly outperform the latter ones for low average signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). They also show that the two systems have similar performance at high average SNR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1126-1131
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Bit-error rate (BER)
  • Collaborative/cooperative diversity
  • Harmonic mean
  • Outage probability
  • Rayleigh fading
  • Transmission with relays

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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