Energy Efficiency

Brian Zahnstecher, Earl McCune, Doug Kirkpatrick, Rick Booth, Kirk Bresniker, Lin Nease, Anirban Bandyopadhyay, Bruce Nordman, Francesco Carobolante, Magnus Olsson, Emil Bjornson, Laurence McGarry, Steve Allen, Paul Draxler, Frederica Darema, Mohamed Slim Alouini

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


This 2021 Edition of the IEEE International Network Generations Roadmap (INGR) contains a new Chapter dedicated to Energy Efficiency, which builds upon the initial white paper released in April 2020 [1]. For this purpose, the Energy Efficiency Working Group developed an analysis of the energy efficiency constraints across the whole ecosystem of the Fifth Generation '5G' and following network infrastructure, which can be leveraged by all stakeholders to prioritize resources allocation and technology development to ensure that both technical and economic forecasts can be met. The complexity of the ecosystem and the traditionally siloed approach within the Industry has often prevented the adoption of a holistic approach to addressing the fundamental problem of energy, which is the ultimate constraint to any complex deployment. The proposed framework facilitates an assessment of bottlenecks and their implication on the network: it may be used by both academic and industry stakeholders to develop solutions that address the real issues and enable a healthy ecosystem. After a comprehensive survey of the ecosystem and its challenges, the following key areas were selected for a more in-depth analysis: •Network Efficiency •Small Cell Migration •Base Station Power •Economic Factors •Grid/Utility This Chapter also identifies the need for a comprehensive 'Systems-of-Systems' (SoS) analysis to address the complex inter-relations among the multiple layers, which the infrastructure leverages. An initial proposal describes how a model can be built to enable a comprehensive assessment of energy requirements across such a diverse ecosystem. A future step in the process will consolidate a proposal for standardization of this model, which can be utilized by all stakeholders for both analysis and forecasting of capabilities and return on investment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings - 2022 IEEE Future Networks World Forum, FNWF 2022
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9781665462501
StatePublished - 2022
Event2022 IEEE Future Networks World Forum, FNWF 2022 - Virtual, Online, Canada
Duration: Oct 12 2022Oct 14 2022

Publication series

NameProceedings - 2022 IEEE Future Networks World Forum, FNWF 2022


Conference2022 IEEE Future Networks World Forum, FNWF 2022
CityVirtual, Online


  • 5G Derate Factor (5GDF)
  • 5G Economic Gap (5GEcG)
  • 5G Energy Gap (5GEG)
  • 5G Equality Gap (5GEqG)
  • Assessment Framework
  • Embodied Energy
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Energy Harvesting (EH)
  • Power Cost Factor (PCF)
  • Power Value Chain (PVC)
  • Sustainable Power
  • Systems of Systems (SoS)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Instrumentation


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