Ultrathin ferroelectric materials could potentially enable low-power perovskite ferroelectric tetragonality logic and nonvolatile memories1,2. As ferroelectric materials are made thinner, however, the ferroelectricity is usually suppressed. Size effects in ferroelectrics have been thoroughly investigated in perovskite oxides—the archetypal ferroelectric system3. Perovskites, however, have so far proved unsuitable for thickness scaling and integration with modern semiconductor processes4. Here we report ferroelectricity in ultrathin doped hafnium oxide (HfO2), a fluorite-structure oxide grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon. We demonstrate the persistence of inversion symmetry breaking and spontaneous, switchable polarization down to a thickness of one nanometre. Our results indicate not only the absence of a ferroelectric critical thickness but also enhanced polar distortions as film thickness is reduced, unlike in perovskite ferroelectrics. This approach to enhancing ferroelectricity in ultrathin layers could provide a route towards polarization-driven memories and ferroelectric-based advanced transistors. This work shifts the search for the fundamental limits of ferroelectricity to simpler transition-metal oxide systems—that is, from perovskite-derived complex oxides to fluorite-structure binary oxides—in which ‘reverse’ size effects counterintuitively stabilize polar symmetry in the ultrathin regime.