InGaN-based nanowires (NWs) have been extensively studied for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting devices owing to their tunable bandgap and good chemical stability. Here, we further investigated the influence of Si doping on the PEC performance of InGaN-based NW photoanodes. The Si dopant concentration was controlled by tuning the Si effusion cell temperature (TSi) during plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy growth and further estimated by Mott-Schottky electrochemical measurements. The highest Si dopant concentration of 2.1 × 1018 cm−3 was achieved at TSi = 1120 °C, and the concentration decreased with further increases in TSi. The flat-band potential was calculated and used to estimate the conduction and valence band edge potentials of the Si-doped InGaN-based NWs. The band edge potentials were found to seamlessly straddle the redox potentials of water splitting. The linear scan voltammetry results were consistent with the estimated carrier concentration. The InGaN-based NWs doped with Si at TSi = 1120 °C exhibited almost 9 times higher current density than that of the undoped sample and a stoichiometric evolution of hydrogen and oxygen gases. Our systematic findings suggest that the PEC performance can be significantly improved by optimizing the Si doping level of InGaN-based NW photoanodes.