Eutectic freeze crystallization: Application to process streams and waste water purification

F. Van Der Ham*, G. J. Witkamp, J. De Graauw, G. M. Van Rosmalen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations


Two case studies are presented using eutectic freeze crystallization (EFC) as an alternative for evaporative crystallization: a 7.8 ton day-1 35 w% aqueous sodium nitrate and a 24 ton day-1 12 w% copper sulfate stream. The proposed crystallizer is a cooled disk column crystallizer (CDCC), using indirect cooling for heat transfer. In single stage operation, the formed ice crystals are used to pre-cool the feed stream. A two stage refrigeration unit utilizes the formed ice crystals in the condensation of refrigerant. Expressed as a thermal equivalent energy requirement, EFC requires 1282 kJ kg-1 NaNO3 and 1037 kJ kg-1 CuSO4·5H2O. Compared to conventional multi-step evaporation, the energy reductions are 30% for sodium nitrate and 65% for copper sulfate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)207-213
Number of pages7
JournalChemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1998
Externally publishedYes


  • Crystallization
  • Equipment design
  • Eutectic
  • Freezing
  • Waste streams

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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