Exact BER computation for cross QAM constellations

Pavan Kumar Vitthaladevuni*, Mohamed Slim Alouini, John C. Kieffer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations


When the number of bits per symbol is odd, the peak and average power of transmission can be reduced by using cross quadrature amplitude modulations (QAMs) instead of rectangular QAMs. However, since perfect Gray coding is not possible for cross QAMs, using Smith-style Gray coding, this paper derives the exact bit error rate (BER) for cross QAM constellations over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and Rayleigh fading channels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3039-3050
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Bit error rate
  • Cross quadrature amplitude modulation
  • Gray penalty
  • Outage probability
  • Rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation
  • Square quadrature amplitude modulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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