Flexible switch matrix addressable electrode arrays with organic electrochemical transistor and pn diode technology

Ilke Uguz*, David Ohayon, Volkan Arslan, Rajendar Sheelamanthula, Sophie Griggs, Adel Hama, John William Stanton, Iain McCulloch, Sahika Inal, Kenneth L. Shepard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Due to their effective ionic-to-electronic signal conversion and mechanical flexibility, organic neural implants hold considerable promise for biocompatible neural interfaces. Current approaches are, however, primarily limited to passive electrodes due to a lack of circuit components to realize complex active circuits at the front-end. Here, we introduce a p-n organic electrochemical diode using complementary p- and n-type conducting polymer films embedded in a 15-μm -diameter vertical stack. Leveraging the efficient motion of encapsulated cations inside this polymer stack and the opposite doping mechanisms of the constituent polymers, we demonstrate high current rectification ratios (10 5) and fast switching speeds (230 μs). We integrate p-n organic electrochemical diodes with organic electrochemical transistors in the front-end pixel of a recording array. This configuration facilitates the access of organic electrochemical transistor output currents within a large network operating in the same electrolyte, while minimizing crosstalk from neighboring elements due to minimized reverse-biased leakage. Furthermore, we use these devices to fabricate time-division-multiplexed amplifier arrays. Lastly, we show that, when fabricated in a shank format, this technology enables the multiplexing of amplified local field potentials directly in the active recording pixel (26-μm diameter) in a minimally invasive form factor with shank cross-sectional dimensions of only 50×8 μm2 .

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number533
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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