From Chaos to Pseudorandomness: A Case Study on the 2-D Coupled Map Lattice

Yong Wang, Zhuo Liu, Leo Yu Zhang, Fabio Pareschi, Gianluca Setti, Guanrong Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Applying the chaos theory for secure digital communications is promising and it is well acknowledged that in such applications the underlying chaotic systems should be carefully chosen. However, the requirements imposed on the chaotic systems are usually heuristic, without theoretic guarantee for the resultant communication scheme. Among all the primitives for secure communications, it is well accepted that (pseudo) random numbers are most essential. Taking the well-studied 2-D coupled map lattice (2D CML) as an example, this article performs a theoretical study toward pseudorandom number generation with the 2D CML. In so doing, an analytical expression of the Lyapunov exponent (LE) spectrum of the 2D CML is first derived. Using the LEs, one can configure system parameters to ensure the 2D CML only exhibits complex dynamic behavior, and then collect pseudorandom numbers from the system orbits. Moreover, based on the observation that least significant bit distributes more evenly in the (pseudo) random distribution, an extraction algorithm E is developed with the property that when applied to the orbits of the 2D CML, it can squeeze uniform bits. In implementation, if fixed-point arithmetic is used in binary format with a precision of z bits after the radix point, E can ensure that the deviation of the squeezed bits is bounded by 2-z. Further simulation results demonstrate that the new method not only guides the 2D CML model to exhibit complex dynamic behavior but also generates uniformly distributed independent bits with good efficiency. In particular, the squeezed pseudorandom bits can pass both NIST 800-22 and TestU01 test suites in various settings. This study thereby provides a theoretical basis for effectively applying the 2D CML to secure communications.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1324-1334
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2023
Externally publishedYes


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