Gene-by-gene or localized dosage compensation on the neo-X chromosome in Drosophila miranda

Masafumi Nozawa, Kazuho Ikeo, Takashi Gojobori

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Many organisms have a global mechanism for dosage compensation (DC) operating along the entire male X chromosome, which equalizes gene expression on the male X with that on the two Xs in females and/or on autosomes. At the initial stage of sex chromosome evolution, however, gene-by-gene (or localized) DC may also be necessary because the degeneration of Y-linked genes occurs independently at different times. We therefore tested whether the up-regulation of X-linked genes depends on the status of their Y-linked homologs, using the young sex chromosomes, neo-X and neo-Y, in Drosophila miranda. In support of the presence of gene-by-gene DC, the extent of up-regulation in males was indeed higher for neo-X-linked genes with pseudogenized neo-Y-linked homologs than for neo-X-linked genes with functional neo-Y-linked homologs. Further molecular evolutionary analysis also supports the idea that many individual neo-X-linked genes first acquired the potential for up-regulation, which then enabled the pseudogenization of neo-Y-linked homologs, without serious deleterious effects on male fitness.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1875-1881
Number of pages7
JournalGenome Biology and Evolution
Issue number8
StatePublished - Jul 7 2018


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