Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of mortality worldwide. Considerable evidence indicates that dysbiosis of the gut microbial community and its metabolite secretions play a fundamental role in advanced adenoma (ADA) and CRC development and progression. This study is a systematic review that aims to assess the clinical association between gut microbial markers and/or gut and circulating metabolites with ADA and CRC. Five electronic databases were searched by four independent reviewers. Only controlled trials that compared ADA and/or CRC with healthy control (HC) using either untargeted (16s rRNA gene or whole genome sequencing) or targeted (gene-based real-time PCR) identification methods for gut microbiome profile, or untargeted or targeted metabolite profiling approaches from the gut or serum/plasma, were eligible. Three independent reviewers evaluated the quality of the studies using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Twenty-four studies were eligible. We identified strong evidence of two microbial markers Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas for ADA vs. CRC, and nine microbial markers Lachnospiraceae-Lachnoclostridium, Ruminococcaceae-Ruminococcus, Parvimonas spp., Parvimonas micra, Enterobacteriaceae, Fusobacterium spp., Bacteroides, Peptostreptococcus-Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Clostridia spp.-Clostridium hylemonae, Clostridium symbiosum, and Porphyromonas-Porphyromonas asaccharolytica for CRC vs. HC. The remaining metabolite marker evidence between the various groups, including ADA vs. HC, ADA vs. HC, and CRC vs. HC, was not of sufficient quality to support additional findings. The identified gut microbial markers can be used in a panel for diagnosing ADA and/or CRC. Further research in the metabolite markers area is needed to evaluate the possibility to use in diagnostic or prognostic markers for colorectal cancer.