Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common types of liver cancer; accounts for 75–85% of cases. The treatment and management of HCC involve different sanative options like surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, etc. Recently, various advancements have been introduced for the diagnosis and targeting of hepatic tumor cells. Among these, biomarkers are considered the primary source for the diagnosis and differentiation of tumor cells. With the advancement in the field of nanotechnology, different types of nanocarriers have been witnessed in tumor targeting. Nanocarriers such as nanoparticles, liposomes, polymeric micelles, nanofibers, etc. are readily prepared for effective tumor targeting with minimal side-effects. The emergence of various approaches tends to improve the effectiveness of these nanocarriers as demonstrated in ample clinical trials. This review focuses on the significant role of carbohydrates such as mannose, galactose, fructose, etc. in the development, diagnosis, and therapy of HCC. Hence, the current focus of this review is to acknowledge various perspectives regarding the occurrence, diagnosis, treatment, and management of HCC.