Identifying Plasmodium falciparum transmission patterns through parasite prevalence and entomological inoculation rate

Benjamin Amoah, Robert S McCann, Alinune N Kabaghe, Monicah Mburu, Michael G Chipeta, Paula Moraga, Steven Gowelo, Tinashe Tizifa, Henk van den Berg, Themba Mzilahowa, Willem Takken, Michele van Vugt, Kamija S Phiri, Peter J Diggle, Dianne J Terlouw, Emanuele Giorgi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background:Monitoring malaria transmission is a critical component of efforts to achieve targets for elimination and eradication. Two commonly monitored metrics of transmission intensity are parasite prevalence (PR) and the entomological inoculation rate (EIR). Comparing the spatial and temporal variations in the PR and EIR of a given geographical region and modelling the relationship between the two metrics may provide a fuller picture of the malaria epidemiology of the region to inform control activities.Methods:Using geostatistical methods, we compare the spatial and temporal patterns of Plasmodium falciparum EIR and PR using data collected over 38 months in a rural area of Malawi. We then quantify the relationship between EIR and PR by using empirical and mechanistic statistical models.Results:Hotspots identified through the EIR and PR partly overlapped during high transmission seasons but not during low transmission seasons. The estimated relationship showed a 1-month delayed effect of EIR on PR such that at lower levels of EIR, increases in EIR are associated with rapid rise in PR, whereas at higher levels of EIR, changes in EIR do not translate into notable changes in PR.Conclusions:Our study emphasises the need for integrated malaria control strategies that combine vector and human host managements monitored by both entomological and parasitaemia indices.Funding:This work was supported by Stichting Dioraphte grant number 13050800.
Original languageEnglish (US)
StatePublished - Oct 20 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Medicine
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • General Neuroscience


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