Impacts of Climate Modes on Air–Sea Heat Exchange in the Red Sea

Yasser Abualnaja, Vassilis P. Papadopoulos, Simon A. Josey, Ibrahim Hoteit, Harilaos Kontoyiannis, Dionysios E. Raitsos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


The impacts of various climate modes on the Red Sea surface heat exchange are investigated using the MERRA reanalysis and the OAFlux satellite reanalysis datasets. Seasonality in the atmospheric forcing is also explored. Mode impacts peak during boreal winter [December–February (DJF)] with average anomalies of 12–18 W m−2 to be found in the northern Red Sea. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the east Atlantic–west Russia (EAWR) pattern, and the Indian monsoon index (IMI) exhibit the strongest influence on the air–sea heat exchange during the winter. In this season, the largest negative anomalies of about −30 W m−2 are associated with the EAWR pattern over the central part of the Red Sea. In other seasons, mode-related anomalies are considerably lower, especially during spring when the mode impacts are negligible. The mode impacts are strongest over the northern half of the Red Sea during winter and autumn. In summer, the southern half of the basin is strongly influenced by the multivariate ENSO index (MEI). The winter mode–related anomalies are determined mostly by the latent heat flux component, while in summer the shortwave flux is also important. The influence of the modes on the Red Sea is found to be generally weaker than on the neighboring Mediterranean basin.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2665-2681
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Climate
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jan 6 2015


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