Imprint in ferroelectric capacitors

William L. Warren*, Bruce A. Tuttle, Duane Dimos, Gordon E. Pike, Husam N. Al-Shareef, Ramamoorthy Ramesh, Joseph T. Evans

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

120 Scopus citations


We show that voltage offsets in the polarization-voltage characteristics of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 capacitors can lead to imprint in ferroelectric memory devices. The thermal-induced voltage shifts (internal bias field) are in part attributed to the role of oxygen vacancy-related defect dipoles throughout the film. In support of this, it is found that donor doping at the Ti(Zr) sites reduces the thermally-induced voltage shifts. The stress-induced voltage shifts are found to be dependent on the Zr/Ti cation ratio. This compositional dependence is explained by considering the role of deep bulk Ti3+ centers and/or a compositional dependent oxygen vacancy density.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1521-1524
Number of pages4
JournalJapanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1: Regular Papers and Short Notes and Review Papers
Issue number2 SUPPL. B
StatePublished - Feb 1996
Externally publishedYes


  • Defects
  • Ferroelectrics
  • Imprint
  • PZT
  • Polarization-voltage
  • Thin film

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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