Integrating Green-Blue-Gray Infrastructure for Sustainable Urban Flood Risk Management: Enhancing Resilience and Advantages

Mohammed M. Al-Humaiqani, Sami G. Al-Ghamdi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Ensuring the sustainability and resilience of urban infrastructure systems in the face of climate change impacts is of paramount importance. This chapter emphasizes the integration of climate change considerations into decision-making processes for urban development. It introduces the concept of green-blue-gray infrastructure (GBGI), which combines three types of infrastructure to provide a comprehensive solution for adapting to and mitigating climate change impacts. The chapter highlights the numerous benefits of green infrastructure (GI), which has emerged as a sustainable urban system surpassing traditional gray infrastructure. GI has proven effective in regulating temperature, reducing energy consumption, improving air quality, managing floods, and enhancing drought resilience. However, the chapter also acknowledges the need for further research on the role of GI in flood management and calls for the application of theoretical frameworks in GI research. Additionally, the chapter discusses gray infrastructure (GRAI), which encompasses conventional infrastructures such as pipelines, roads, and bridges that have historically shaped urban development. However, GRAIs contribute to the proliferation of impermeable surfaces, impeding rainwater infiltration and leading to flooding and other environmental challenges. The chapter underscores the importance of integrating green and blue infrastructure elements into the existing gray infrastructure systems to optimize flood risk management and enhance urban resilience.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationSustainable Cities in a Changing Climate
Subtitle of host publicationEnhancing Urban Resilience
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9781394201532
ISBN (Print)9781394201549
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023


  • climate change
  • flood risk
  • green-blue-gray infrastructure
  • resilience
  • sustainable urban development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Environmental Science


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