Kinetic Stabilization of the Sol-Gel State in Perovskites Enables Facile Processing of High-Efficiency Solar Cells.

Kai Wang, Ming-Chun Tang, Hoang X Dang, Rahim Munir, Dounya Barrit, Michele de Bastiani, Erkan Aydin, Detlef-M Smilgies, Stefaan De Wolf, Aram Amassian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations


Perovskite solar cells increasingly feature mixed-halide mixed-cation compounds (FA1- x - y MAx Csy PbI3- z Brz ) as photovoltaic absorbers, as they enable easier processing and improved stability. Here, the underlying reasons for ease of processing are revealed. It is found that halide and cation engineering leads to a systematic widening of the anti-solvent processing window for the fabrication of high-quality films and efficient solar cells. This window widens from seconds, in the case of single cation/halide systems (e.g., MAPbI3 , FAPbI3 , and FAPbBr3 ), to several minutes for mixed systems. In situ X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the processing window is closely related to the crystallization of the disordered sol-gel and to the number of crystalline byproducts; the processing window therefore depends directly on the precise cation/halide composition. Moreover, anti-solvent dripping is shown to promote the desired perovskite phase with careful formulation. The processing window of perovskite solar cells, as defined by the latest time the anti-solvent drip yields efficient solar cells, broadened with the increasing complexity of cation/halide content. This behavior is ascribed to kinetic stabilization of sol-gel state through cation/halide engineering. This provides guidelines for designing new formulations, aimed at formation of the perovskite phase, ultimately resulting in high-efficiency perovskite solar cells produced with ease and with high reproducibility.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1808357
JournalAdvanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.)
Issue number32
StatePublished - Jun 17 2019


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