Lanthanide-doped Na xScF 3+ x nanocrystals: Crystal structure evolution and multicolor tuning

Xue Teng, Yihan Zhu, Wei Wei, Shuchao Wang, Jingfeng Huang, Rafik Naccache, Wenbo Hu, Alfred Iing Yoong Tok, Yu Han, Qichun Zhang, Quli Fan, Wei Huang, John A. Capobianco, Ling Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

312 Scopus citations


Rare-earth-based nanomaterials have recently drawn considerable attention because of their unique energy upconversion (UC) capabilities. However, studies of Sc 3+-based nanomaterials are still absent. Herein we report the synthesis and fine control of Na xScF 3+x nanocrystals by tuning of the ratio of oleic acid (OA, polar surfactant) to 1-octadecene (OD, nonpolar solvent). When the OA:OD ratio was increased from low (3:17) to high (3:7), the nanocrystals changed from pure monoclinic phase (Na 3ScF 6) to pure hexagonal phase (NaScF 4) via a transition stage at an intermediate OA:OD ratio (3:9) where a mixture of nanocrystals in monoclinic and hexagonal phases was obtained and the coexistence of the two phases inside individual nanocrystals was also observed. More significantly, because of the small radius of Sc 3+, Na xScF 3+x:Yb/Er nanocrystals show different UC emission from that of NaYF 4:Yb/Er nanocrystals, which broadens the applications of rare-earth-based nanomaterials ranging from optical communications to disease diagnosis. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8340-8343
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number20
StatePublished - May 15 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Catalysis


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