Low-Temperature Crystalline Titanium Dioxide by Atomic Layer Deposition for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Aravind Kumar Chandiran, Aswani Yella, Morgan Stefik, Leo-Philipp Heiniger, Pascal Comte, Mohammad. K. Nazeeruddin, Michael Grätzel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations


Low-temperature processing of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is crucial to enable commercialization with low-cost, plastic substrates. Prior studies have focused on mechanical compression of premade particles on plastic or glass substrates; however, this did not yield sufficient interconnections for good carrier transport. Furthermore, such compression can lead to more heterogeneous porosity. To circumvent these problems, we have developed a low-temperature processing route for photoanodes where crystalline TiO2 is deposited onto well-defined, mesoporous templates. The TiO2 is grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the crystalline films are achieved at a growth temperature of 200 C. The ALD TiO2 thickness was systematically studied in terms of charge transport and performance to lead to optimized photovoltaic performance. We found that a 15 nm TiO2 overlayer on an 8 μm thick SiO2 film leads to a high power conversion efficiency of 7.1% with the state-of-the-art zinc porphyrin sensitizer and cobalt bipyridine redox mediator. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3487-3493
Number of pages7
JournalACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 4 2013
Externally publishedYes


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